EPIDEMEOLOGY

Diabetes Epidemeology: causes of diabetes and its effects on health



What is diabetes epidemiology?



Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by increased blood sugar levels which is caused either due to pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells do not respond to the insulin produced. Diabetes epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes and effects of health and conditions among populations.



What are the causes of diabetes?



Causes: there are two types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2.

Type1 diabetes is caused due to the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. In this type, body’s immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells. This type mostly occurs in children and young adults which is why it is also called as juvenile diabetes. This type 1 diabetes is inherited by children from their parents.



Type2 diabetes is caused by a mixture of factors including resistance to insulin, a condition where body fats and livers do not use insulin efficiently. Type 2 is caused due to body’s inability to produce enough insulin to compensate the ineffective usage of the insulin by the body. This type of diabetes mostly occurs in obese people. More than 90 % of diabetes patients come under type2 diabetes.



The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.



What are the effects on health and conditions due to diabetes?



Effects on health and conditions: Diabetes is a dangerous disease in which blood sugar level increases alarmingly and it poses various adverse health effects on your body and when diabetes gets mixed with various other health related problems such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol or both, it increases the risk of health complications like heart diseases and strokes. Kidney failure, paralysis and blindness are some of the disease caused due to diabetes apart from all heart related problems.



Distressing numbers related to diabetes



India has more diabetic patient than any other country in the world. China has almost 10% people suffering from this disease. More than 3.5 million in UK are suffering from it. Over 8 % of people suffered from diabetes in USA.

As per world health Organization study the prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double  between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people > 65 years of age.

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